The figure highlights the trajectory of annual ozone-depleting substance emissions. In the 1970s, emissions of halogen source gasesas well as ozone-depleting substances from anthropogenic sources were combined and shown as a total of annualemissions of ODSs. Sulfate aerosol emissions are a type of long-lived nature-derived ODS, with emissions peaking in the late 1980s. The first ozone measurements were made in the 1950s. The third panel shows the annual evolution of ozone concentration in the stratosphere. Ozone was measured for the first time at the mid-tropospheric level around the International Geophysical Year in 1957. The ozone vertical column concentration, here measured as ozone volume mixing ratio, increases from the surface up through the stratosphere, where it reaches its maximum at around the tropopause. Over several decades it declines to a minimum near the stratopause before rising again through the stratosphere toward the top. The thickness of the ozone layer depends on the thickness of the stratospheric ozone column.
Figure Q0-2. Global ozone hole size and shape. This figure illustrates the evolution of the size and shape of the ozone hole in the stratosphere (horizontal slices along latitude, from 10°S to 50°N) during a period of 12 years and from 2000 until 2012. During the corresponding period, a satellite-based ozone depletion product developed by the World Meteorological Organizationand the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provided data for estimating the average ozone column thickness in the first six months of each year. A corresponding three-dimensional time series of the ozone hole is also provided. The vertical axis shows the vertical ozone column thickness (volume mixing ratio) and the horizontal axis shows the latitude. The color scale indicates the decrease in ozone from the minimal level (black) over the average for the period (white) to a maximum value (red). The ozone hole has increased in size and changes in shape over the years as a consequence of increased stratospheric ozone recovery, as illustrated by the yellow high-altitude contours. The variable size and shape of the ozone hole is also illustrated in the 3-D plot, where the thickest ozone depletion is seen at high latitudes (40°N-50°N) and low latitudes (10°S-20°S).
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